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Cohesion is a semantic notion indicating relations of meaning established within a text. Cohesion occurs where the interpretation of some elements in the discourse is dependent on that of another. This implies the existence of two elements: the presupposing and the presupposed --> to be interpreted, the former depends on the latter --> a cohesive tie is established between the presupposing and the presupposed items.
Cohesive relations are realized partly through grammar and partly through lexis, vocabulary. So, we can talk about grammatical cohesion (as at least one element in the tie is a grammatical word) or of lexical cohesion (since the tie involves the presence of content words).
Halliday and Hasan identify five main ways by which cohesion is achieved in English:
- reference
- substitution
- ellipsis
- conjunction
- lexical organization.
di Melissa Gattoni
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