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The Democratic Republic of Georgia in Diplomatic Relations of the Great Powers 1918-1921

In thesis I will discuss 1918-1921 events consistently and try to show the political essence of that age toward the Caucasus and Georgia in particular.

The work includes six parts: in chapter I that looks at the Democratic Republic of Georgia and Backing of Germany in 1918, specifically I will discuss the conditions that led to declaring independence of Georgia and the aspects of its relationship with Germany. This chapter will show the importance of German position for the Democratic Republic of Georgia and its survival. Chapter II regarding Transcaucasian Chessboard in 1919-mid 1920 talks about the core period of Georgia's independence and, in particular, its relations with Great Britain. Here the position of the British to Transcaucasia is well illustrated. Chapter III which looks at The End of the Game: In Political Storm of 1920-1921 makes us aware of the developments that took place after the British had left Georgia and the latter found itself alone against Russian forces. Great European Powers' unfavorable positions to the Democratic Republic of Georgia and their indifference to its fate led to Russian invasion of Georgia and made the latter a part of the Soviet Union. Chapter IV is of specific character and concerns to The Georgian Orthodox Church in the Years of Independence 1918-1921. The Orthodox Church has always been an important factor in life of the country and in enhancing national awareness of the Georgian people. Even in this period the Church tried to be an influential actor in society but this was impossible because of policies by Social-Democratic government of Georgia. And finally, there is a conclusion that reviews briefly the Actual Situation and how the research of that period is connected to our present time.

The present thesis is another effort to study and analyze a very turbulent period of Georgian independence in 1918-1921 and its role and place in European diplomacy of that time. The thesis does not have a claim of perfection and thereby it may include some defects and shortcomings. I have tried to display essentially the aspects of country's foreign affairs and not those of internal policy. Therefore, I cannot maintain that this short work is a comprehensive one of Georgia's presence in those three years. I hope that this work will make its small contribution to studying Georgian foreign policy or mode of diplomacy (but very defected) that really lacks basic studies, researches or books and monographies about this question.

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5 Introduction Down the centuries Georgia or its precursor kindred political units were always in vital interests of the surrounding empires because of the country’s geopolitical situation. The south Caucasian region is situated on the crossroad of Europe and Asia that was always characterized by the network of trade routes and the aspirations of great empires to catch and control them for their own interests. Hence, for Georgia it was often very difficult to save its own independence and territorial integrity. In doing so the country had to have political firmness and unanimity both in foreign affairs and in internal environment. But it has always been a very sensitive question for Georgian statehood because the country in most of times was too weak and undefended against the strong enemies and, on the other hand, there was mostly a problem of orientation inside the country – Georgia is always characterized by the diversity of fractions having absolutely different orientations regarding foreign political course of the country. This is the case even today. Political unification of Georgia began in the second half of the 10 th century and its summit was reached in 12 th and in the first quarter of the 13 th century. This period is considered “The Golden Age” of Georgian history realized, in particular, by King David IV the Builder (1089-1125) and King Tamar (1184-1213). From the middle of 13 th century in Georgia’s history the decadence began to dominate. The Mongol Empire invaded and conquered Georgia for a century. In the next centuries the Ottoman and Persian empires contested for possessing Georgian territories; in such circumstances country was divided in small kingdoms and principalities. The worst was the fact that these kings and princes had endless struggles with one another that made the country much weaker and attackable. From the beginning of the 17 th century Georgian kings and princes began to contact to Russian tsars in order to overcome a heavy yoke of Muslim empires. In this case, one of the most important connecting thread was religion – Orthodoxy – because the heads of Georgian principalities thought that “the Third Rome” was interested in defeating and banishing these Empires, especially the Ottomans, from the Caucasus. But the reality was absolutely different. Maybe Russia wanted to do this, but it did not have the strength and possibility to realize it. And in such a context, by the end of the 18 th century, greater Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti under King Erekle II signed the Treaty of Georgievsk

Laurea liv.II (specialistica)

Facoltà: Scienze Sociali

Autore: Irakli Javakhishvili Contatta »

Composta da 77 pagine.

 

Questa tesi ha raggiunto 56 click dal 28/02/2018.

Disponibile in PDF, la consultazione è esclusivamente in formato digitale.