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Conversation analysis



CA is used as a method of analysing conversation and the interaction of people.
It analyses not only professional and workplace talk but also political speech and media genres.
CA perceive communication as a joint activity, in fact it rejects the model of communication as sending and receving messages, because a dialogue is not made up of monologues, it's an activity of talk in interaction. People take turns to talk: at one time turn will belong to a speaker and participants don't talk all at once. The floor is constantly negotiated and talk is locally managed, because it's not possible to follow an order decided previously.
A turn consist of one or more constructional unit and there are different rules for passing the floor: current speaker select next speaker (What do you think Jane?); next speaker self-select (he begins to talk) or current speakers continue to speak.
When people are talking it may happen that there are cases of silence or simultaneous speech: they are considered as situation need to be repaired. When silence is prolonged, one speaker break the ice and begin to speak, in the case of simultaneous speech one speaker win the floor. In case of simultaneous speech we can have both interruption (an hostile act, you want to interrupt) but also overlap (it's not hostile, it's short, it happens when a person doens't predict the end of a turn).
In CA one turns after one other is the basic pattern (adjancency pair, one utterance is dependent on the other), so a question need an answer. An other example of adjacency pairs are greeting: if you don't answer to a greeting you are snob and rude.
di Melissa Gattoni
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