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Environmental and socio-economic Impact of improved Stoves - The Case of the Tsotso Stove in Northern Namibia

Stoves with improved efficiency have been introduced in developing countries since 1970. While the focus initially lay on fuel savings and the main concern was deforestation, it is nowadays recognised that a stove programme can and should include a variety of benefits for the stove users, producers, and the environment.
In the light of this change, this thesis serves to analyse the environmental and socio-economic impacts of the Tsotso Stove in Northern Namibia. A system dynamics approach was further used to gain a holistic view of the connections between the stoves, households and the environment. To create a valid, representative conceptual model, a pre-survey was conducted. Based on this model, 32 households were interviewed. From these interviews, five parameters were derived: effect on deforestation, time savings, effect on health, effect on budget and cooking satisfaction. The results show that the way the stove is used and thus also its impact varies significantly between households. While on average the stove is used 1.6 times per day, the minimum was only about 0.15 times and the maximum 5 times per day. Concerning the environmental performance, the calculations suggest that the wood savings that can be achieved are significant. Nevertheless, improved stoves should be embedded in a wider strategy in the fight against deforestation. From a system dynamics perspective, the stove is important, for it gives the households another option besides a switch to dung as fuel when firewood becomes scarce. Concerning the socio-economic impact, the households that use the stove continuously throughout the year profit the most from it. The biggest benefits are time-savings, which, on average, account to 15 minutes per day. For households that buy fuelwood, money savings can be as high as 100 US$ per month, while the average is around 9 US$. The effect on health is difficult to evaluate, but this study suggests a positive impact, mainly due to an increase in safety. Finally, the survey results indicate that the Tsotso Stove has better handling properties than the traditional stove. As a main result, this thesis shows that the Tsotso Stove has a positive environmental impact, whose significance is limited due to the low dissemination level, and a beneficial socio-economic impact, that varies greatly between household.

Mostra/Nascondi contenuto.
Chapter 1 Introduction About 2 billion people in the world rely on non-modern fuels to fulfil their cooking needs (UNDP, UNDESA, WEC, [46]2000). These people make use of biomass such as wood, crop residues and dung. In Namibia, 80% of the rural population rely on fuelwood (Wamukonya, [51]1997), p.3), and a switch to processed fuels like kerosene or even electricity is in general difficult for rural households, since people are poor and the dissemination of modern fuels is difficult (Worldbank, [53]1996). It has been found that the stove determines to a great deal the socio-economic and environmental impact of biomass use. These impacts are either internal or external to the households using the stove (Barnes et al., [4]1993, p.120). Within the households, the stove determines e.g. how much time is needed for cooking, how much wood is being used and the level of emissions that the household members are exposed to. External impacts are the stove’s effect on deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions. Realising the great potential benefits of improved stoves, several stove programmes have been conducted in the past, initially focusing on energy-efficiency, while nowadays the focus has shifted towards development concerns (Joseph et al., [21]1990, p.4; Nystro¨m, [35]1994, p.26). 1.1 Thesis Aim Compared to the huge number of different stove programmes that have been launched throughout the developing World, monitoring and evaluation efforts have been insufficient (Gill, [17]1987, p.140; Wallmo, Jacobson, [50]1998, p.100). Although there are efforts to achieve uniformity in the way stove programmes are monitored (see, for example S. Joseph, [22]1990), there is a definite need for detailed analysis to understand the relationships between stoves and their users (Nystro¨m, [35]1994, p.33) which ultimately determines the stove’s impact on the environment. Taking the example of the Oshana and Omusati region in northern Namibia, the aim of this thesis is therefore to evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impact of the Tsotso Stove. In order to do this, five thesis questions were established: ˆ What is the stove’s impact on deforestation? ˆ Does the stove help families to save time and if yes, how much? ˆ What is the stove’s impact on the household members’ health? ˆ What is the stove’s impact on the households’ bugdet? ˆ What is the stove’s impact on cooking satisfaction? What distinguishes this thesis from a stove programme evaluation is that it further tries to increase the understanding of the system comprised of stoves, households and the environment by applying a system dynamics approach. 3

International thesis/dissertation

Autore: Kai Kuhnhenn Contatta »

Composta da 51 pagine.

 

Questa tesi ha raggiunto 283 click dal 21/02/2006.

Disponibile in PDF, la consultazione è esclusivamente in formato digitale.