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The efficiency of GHGs emission reduction policies in Italy

The aim of this work is to analyze the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in Italy. The guidelines to adopt the appropriate policies are decided at the European Community level. Then, the different governments have to implement the European directives nationally. In this thesis I seek to analyze the cost‐efficiency of the Italian policies, which have been chosen to comply with the Kyoto Protocol. Italian environmental policies are mainly standards and incentives. The Italian government usually avoided implementing emission taxes. Moreover, I will analyze the Italian implementation of Kyoto flexible mechanisms. Cost‐efficiency is not absent in the Italian policy‐making, but it should be improved in view of the 20‐20‐20 targets.

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  8  2. CLIMATE CHANGE AND KYOTO PROTOCOL     2.1 CLIMATE CHANGE    Global warming is the increase in the  average temperature of the Earth’s surface  air and oceans.  In the last twenty years environmental issues,  including   climate change,  has increasingly  appeared  on the international agenda. Presently, throughout the world ,  the international actors are conside ring the implication  of these phenomena on the  national economies and considering what national and global policies to apply.   The  climate  change,  as  highlighted  by the  UN  Commission  Report,  IPCC,  the  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, is happening  quickly and at a global  scal e 1 .     2.1.1 IPCC results   The  Intergovernmental  Panel  on  Climate  Change  (IPCC)  is  a  scientific  body  established  by  the  United  Nations  Environmental  Program  (UNEP)  and  the  World  Meteorological Organization (WMO) in order to  estimate the current trend of climate  change and its potential   conseq uences 2 . According to the Fourth Assessment Report of  IPCC  (2007)  the  amount  of   Global  Greenhouse  Gases  (GHG),  carbon  dioxide ,  methane,  nitrous  oxide,  sulphur  hexafluoride,  and  two  groups   of  gases,  hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons, have grown since pre ‐ industrial times, but  with  an  increase  of  70%  between  1970  and  2004.   The  g reenhouse  effect  is  a  fundamental natural phenomenon that enabled   life on the Earth, but an increase of  GHGs causes the increase in the retained solar radiation in the atmosphere and the  consequent increase in temperature.  CO 2  emissions, in particular, have grown between   1970  and  2004  by  about  80%  and   represented  77%  of  total  anthropogenic  GHG  emissions in 2004. The increased concentration of GHGs in the air, due to anthropogenic  activities such as fossil fuel combustion and deforestation,  has resulted  in increased  surface temperature: during the 20 th  century  global surface temperature increased by                                                             1   Fourth Assess ment Report of IPCC, 2007   2   UNFCCC website  

Laurea liv.II (specialistica)

Facoltà: Scienze Politiche

Autore: Francesco Dal Pozzo Contatta »

Composta da 84 pagine.

 

Questa tesi ha raggiunto 217 click dal 18/07/2011.

 

Consultata integralmente una volta.

Disponibile in PDF, la consultazione è esclusivamente in formato digitale.