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Development of a Microgrid with Renewable Energy Sources and Electrochemical Storage System Integration

Beside the traditional paradigm of "centralized" power generation with a few main power plants and a distribution network directly connected to the end-users, a new concept of "distributed" generation is emerging, in which the same user becomes pro-sumer, i.e. self-energy producer. During this transition, the Energy Storage Systems (ESS) can provide multiple services and features, which are necessary for a higher quality of the electrical system (both on transmission and on distribution) and for the optimization of non-programmable Renewable Energy Source (RES) power plants.
A ESS prototype was designed, developed and integrated into a renewable energy production system in order to create a smart microgrid and consequently manage in an efficient and intelligent way the energy flow as a function of the power demand. The produced energy can be introduced into the grid, supplied to the load directly or stored in batteries.
The microgrid is composed by a 7kW wind turbine and a 17kW photovoltaic plant are part of. The load is given by electrical utilities of a cheese factory.
The ESS is composed by the following two subsystems, a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and a Power Control System (PCS). With the aim of sizing the ESS, a Remote Grid Analyzer (RGA) was designed, realized and connected to the wind turbine, photovoltaic plant and the switchboard.
Afterwards, different electrochemical storage technologies were studied, and taking into account the load requirements present in the cheese factory, the most suitable solution was identified in the high temperatures salt Na-NiCl2 battery technology. The data acquisition from all electrical utilities provided a detailed load analysis, indicating the optimal storage size equal to a 30 kW battery system. Moreover a container was designed and realized to locate the BESS and PCS, meeting all the requirements and safety conditions.
Furthermore, a smart control system was implemented in order to handle the different applications of the ESS, such as peak shaving or load leveling.

Mostra/Nascondi contenuto.
16 1. Introduction Background The last couple of decades have been a great time of change for the power industry. There are many new and exciting areas in the field of electric power generation, distribution and storage that may be a potential solution to get a sustainable improvement of the grid one day. When looking for a solution to power the grid, the concept of sustainability implies that not only the factor of economics has to be considered but also feasibility and environmental issues as well. Renewable or green solutions to power the grid are becoming ever more present as pressure on environmental issues is being put on industry from governments. One promising form of green energy is the use of large grid scaled energy storage. Energy storage is promising due to the multitude of applications that it can be used for. Renewable generation sources such as wind power and solar power are generated by stochastic environmental processes such as the sun shining or the wind blowing and must be used instantaneously. Power that is generated by these energy sources can be used in the most effective manner by integrating energy storage solutions due to the fact that power generated by these stochastic processes sometimes cannot be used immediately and it is best stored until it is needed. Energy storage can also be used for several maintenance purposes. Today’s infrastructure is clearly aging and in need of modernization. One of the biggest problems that avoids the process of repairing and updating the grid is the grid’s need to be energized at all times, especially when dealing with sensitive loads. Local energy storage systems can be used for local grid maintenance, rather than expensive and time consuming methods requiring a certain part of the grid to be de-energized.

Tesi di Dottorato

Dipartimento: Ingegneria Industriale

Autore: Jose Manuel Subinas Seco De Herrera Contatta »

Composta da 160 pagine.


Questa tesi ha raggiunto 118 click dal 21/04/2017.

Disponibile in PDF, la consultazione è esclusivamente in formato digitale.