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The Culture of Multicultural Integration: Tertiary Organisations' Role in Immigrants' Reception in Sicily

Migration represents one of the most debated issues in Italy and in the EU in the last decades. This work starts from the concept of multicultural integration, conceived as a relevant pre-existent condition for a good inclusion of migrants; the concept is analysed through a comparative analysis among five EU member states. It is argued that the presence of the ‘culture of multicultural integration’ – rather than other approaches like exclusion, assimilation, or the properly multicultural approach – constitutes an added value able to facilitate immigrants’ integration within societies. Then, the work analyses the reception of migrants in Italy, both highlighting the European and Italian laws regulating the issue, and through a deep analysis of the path faced by migrants since their identification in sea. A statistical section provides a deeper knowledge of immigrants flows in the last five years. Finally, the third chapter begins with a theoretical analysis on the main characteristics possessed by CSOs; then, it focuses on the ways used in Sicily in order to integrate migrants within the society. Inclusion in the labour market is conceived as the most efficient way proving the occurred integration within the society. This paper proposes a snapshot of the tertiary sector organizations (NGOs, associations, and other Civil Society actors) operating for the reception and for immigrants’ integration in a city of the Eastern Sicily – Siracusa. The aim is to assess the role that this kind of organizations are playing in dealing with the immigration issue, also showing the difficulties CSOs are facing in creating a link between reception and inclusion in the labour market. In conclusion, this work tries to depict an ideal organization, not (so far) existent, able to fill the gaps left by the current tertiary sector in the city, in particular with immigrants integration in the labour market.

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4 INTRODUCTION In the last decades and – above all – in the last months, Italian and European political debates deal with the issue of clandestine immigration. The growing figures of arrivals in the Sicilian shores, the so called ‘emergence’ faced by the Italian state regarding this wave of migration from the Mediterranean countries, the apparent closed-doors of the other European countries – reluctant in plunging in the management of this issue – all these issues represent only a snapshot of the whole situation. Disorders in North and Sub- Saharan Africa, conflicts in Middle East with other various reasons, they all fostered immigration from the MENA (and Sub-Saharan) area to the Italian – and therefore the European – shores. Reactions have been many and diversified: claims of closing borders, proposals for migrants’ offshore ‘processing centres’, growth in aid and trade with countries of emigration in order to spur the economic development, information campaigns aimed at informing migrants of the condition faced by their predecessors in the path towards EU 1 . These proposals have been accompanied by a growth in the far- right political parties, especially in the Mediterranean EU members states (Lega Nord in Italy, Front National in France, and others), but also in other parts of EU. Both European and national laws have been questioned, in order to search a solution for the reception of immigrants and, in some cases, also for their repatriation. Two operations patrolled the Mediterranean Sea and the Sicilian Canal in the last years, catching – and saving – many lives of ‘boat immigrants’ in search of the ‘European El Dorado’ 2 . The Italian government found itself in difficulties in managing these flows of immigrants. Historically, Italy adopted an ‘emergency approach’ 3 , underestimating the actual value of the migration phenomenon. The group of actors involved in the reception process is wider, and goes beyond the only political ones: there are many groups, associations, cooperatives, NGOs working – hopefully – for ensuring better conditions to immigrants. In Italy the relevance of the (immigration) issue appears widely accepted, and this fostered the growth of this kind of actors. Nevertheless, this does not ensure a growth in the level of multiculturalism 1 H. DE HAAS, The Myth of Invasion: the inconvenient realities of African migration to Europe, Third World Quarterly, 29:7, 2008, pp. 1306 and 1313 2 Idem, p.1305 3 M.T. CONSOLI, Migration Phenomenon in Sicily, Catania, Laposs, 2006

Laurea liv.II (specialistica)

Facoltà: Scienze Politiche

Autore: Cristiano Celesia Contatta »

Composta da 142 pagine.

 

Questa tesi ha raggiunto 28 click dal 15/01/2018.

Disponibile in PDF, la consultazione è esclusivamente in formato digitale.