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Dye Sensitized Solar cells: synthesis and applications of a novel sensitizer and pentacene as hole conductor material

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17 When the solar radiation enters the Earth's atmosphere, a part of the incident energy (about 10 up to 45 %) is removed by scattering or absorption by air molecules (in particular oxygen, ozone, water vapor, and carbon dioxide), clouds, dust and particulate matter usually referred to as aerosols. The radiation that is not reflected or scattered and reaches the surface directly in line from the solar disc is called direct or beam radiation. The scattered radiation which reaches the ground is called diffuse radiation. Some of the radiation may reach a receiver after reflection from the ground, and is called the albedo. The total radiation consisting of these three components is called global. The amount of radiation that reaches the ground is, of course, extremely variable. In addition to the regular daily and yearly variation due to the apparent motion of the Sun, irregular variations are caused by the climatic conditions (cloud cover), as well as by the general composition of the atmosphere. For this reason, the design of a photovoltaic system relies on the input of measured data close to the site of the installation. The total yearly solar irradiation on horizontal surface is 700-1000 kWh/m 2 in North Europe, 900-1300 kWh/m 2 in Middle Europe, 1300-1800 kWh/m 2 in South Europe, 1800-2300 kWh/m 2 in the equator, and 2000-2500 kWh/m 2 in the so called "solar belt" i.e. between 20° and 30° latitude. The attenuation of the sunlight by the atmosphere depends on the optical path length to observation point. The ratio between ‘any path lengths through the air on earth’ and ‘this minimum above’ is called the optical air mass or air mass. In case the sun is directly overhead, the air mass is unity. This path length is shortest at the moment that the sun is directly overhead. Therefore, on a clear summer day at sea level, the sun light flux at zenith corresponds to air mass 1 (abbreviated to AM1) irradiance; at other times, the air mass is approximately equal to 1/cos θ, where θ is the zenith angle.

Anteprima della Tesi di Vito Sgobba

Anteprima della tesi: Dye Sensitized Solar cells: synthesis and applications of a novel sensitizer and pentacene as hole conductor material, Pagina 6

Tesi di Dottorato

Dipartimento: Ingegneria dell'Innovazione

Autore: Vito Sgobba Contatta »

Composta da 156 pagine.

 

Questa tesi ha raggiunto 5584 click dal 02/03/2005.

 

Consultata integralmente 10 volte.

Disponibile in PDF, la consultazione è esclusivamente in formato digitale.